Muhammad and Pillars of Islam



MUHAMMAD AND PILLARS OF ISLAM


Víctor Manuel Guzmán Villena



According to realized Studies one of five persons in the world continues the religion of the Islam, word that means “submission“ and refers to the submission to god. The Muslim name stems from the same root and means “the one that surrenders”. So that the Islam presents itself as a religion of those who surrender to god

The story of the origin and expansion encompasses persecution from their enemies and wars of conquest that led to its sovereignty in the Middle East, North Africa and parts of Europe and Asia.

MUHAMMAD ITS FOUNDER

Muhammad was born in Mecca, Arabia in 570 d.N. E.. His father Abdullah (whose name means "slave of God"), died before the birth of Muhammad. At the age of six he lost her mother. In his youth Muhammad took a job in caravans of a rich widow named Khadija. He married his patron and of this marriage were born two sons, who died in their childhood and two daughters.

As Arab, his religious heritage is traced from Abraham and the promise that God had given to him of blessing his son Ismael and making him a father of a big nation. The tradition was saying that the Mecca was where the angel spoke to Agar when she was fleeing of Sara, and gave him promises with regard to his son Ismael who will be born. The fulfillment was in the Arab tribes who descend from Ismael. Between them there were many small Bedouin tribes in the region that now is Saudi Arabia.


History tells us that Abraham and Ishmael in the desert built the Kaaba stone for an altar to God. It was a sanctum in cubic form in the place where later the city of the Mecca would be lifted. Aside of the sanctum there was the Black Stone (probably a meteor) that, according to the tradition, Gabriel had brought from the sky. The Kaaba was the center of adoration for the Arabs. The tribe of Quraish to whom Muhammad belonged was the Kaaba guard.

In his trips to Syria and Palestine, Mohammad met Jews and Christians. On not having been able to read, Mohammad was listening to the Biblical readings and he learned well of its educations. He accepted the fact that there was only one god of the bible, called Allah in Arabic and Ala in Spanish. He was often going to the Mecca to meditate and search for an intimate relations with the sovereign god.

In the year 613 or 614 it was his first revelation, that he had to recite everything what god would say to him. Later he had other revelations that he had to teach. He said that there were words read by Gabriel of a book that god himself had written before the foundation of the world.




Muhammad turned into a spirited prophet. He was proclaiming that Allah was one and that they all had to repent not to perish in the terrible day of the judgment. It was reciting the messages and was winning followers, the same ones who wrote his messages. After his death they would gather them and compiled into the Koran, which is the sacred book of the Islam.

After the death of his wife Khadija, Mohammad married an increasing number of women. The polygamy was common in this time, and it was looking like a form of life when Muhammad limited to four the number of wives that a man could have simultaneously. Muhammad had a revelation of which to him was giving a special dispensation of having more wives, and in whole he had eleven. His followers continued with the limitation of four in the countries where the polygamy was allowed.

Mohammad called his followers to a "holy war" (jihad) to subjugate all to Allah's faith. After eight years he went to the Mecca with ten thousand soldiers and took it. It purged the Kaaba of the idols and dedicated it like a sanctum of the Islam. He continued with the annual peregrinates and established certain requisites

Muhammad learned much from the Jews and Christians, and treated with respect. But to see that resisted his teachings, everything changed. Command to observe the Friday instead of Saturday as a holy day and pray toward Mecca and not Jerusalem. Thousands of Jews and Christians were killed in the Jihad, it was taught that who killed a no Islamic had secured the entrance to paradise, and these lessons to today are present in the conflict that keeps the followers of Allah with part of the world, especially the West

THE PILLARS OF ISLAM
Muhammad established five pillars of Islam that are required for every Muslim.

1 .- The Creed. Is required to repeat every day in Arabic the creed: no god beside Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.

2 .- Prayer. You must pray five times a day at times indicated. Five times sounding the call to prayer. Men should kneel with their faces towards Mecca and forehead on the floor, and repeat certain prayers in Arabic. So prayer is a ritual rather than an individual communication of a person with god

Even if the Arab language should not be known they learn of memory the words and repeat them. Some of them use a prayer necklace with ninety-nine accounts representing ninety-nine names of God that reveal his character.
3. - The alms. Muhammad being orphan himself had special compassion for the orphans and the poor. He established the requisite of giving alms to the poor and to the family of the prophet. Two and half per cent of the capital of every person was for supporting the religious leaders, the in need ones and the army in its missions to extend the Islam.

4 .- Fasting. Adult must fast during the month of Ramadan, without taking food or drink before the sun rise until placed. After sunset you can eat at ease, and at the end becomes a time of feasts and celebration.

5 .- The pilgrimage (hajj). They are obligated to make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in life, they are walking around the Kaaba and kiss the Black Stone to seven times. With the global spread of this religion, which according to recent statistical data is the second religion in the world, after the evangelicals in the number of adherents, it is impossible for most of the peregrines to touch or kiss the stone, they are conformed to surround the symbol of Islam.

Furthermore, the above requirements is prohibited certain things, including the use of tobacco and alcohol and eat pork.

The conquest of Islam

When Muhammad died in 632 d. N. E. Islamic authorities in Mecca named his stepfather and faithful companion, his successor Abu Bakrcomo was the first caliph. He ordered the collection of the teachings of Muhammad to form the Koran. After two years his successor was a young soldier named Omar, who carried the holy war to conquer neighboring countries, achieved domination of Palestine, Syria, Persia and part of Egypt.

With the death of Omar in 644 was a dissent on which of the two sons-in-law of Muhammad would be the next caliph. Otman or Ali. Otman won the backing of the authorities and led to Islam 656. The Muslim empire extended to Afghanistan, the Caucasus Mountains and Libya. He Iorder to make a revised version of the Koran, and commanded to destroy the old copies. This raised such opposition that a fanatical supporter of Ali murdered Otman.

The power passed to Ali, the husband of Fatima daughter of Muhammad. But the
re was a breakup and civil war with Moawiya, the governor of Damascus, supported by Aischa, the favorite wife and widow of Mohammad. Ali was assassinated in 661 and Damascus became the capital of Islam. After another war between factions, the capital moved to Baghdad (Iraq). Mecca continued as the religious center.

Over the years following the Islamic conquest of the entire Middle East, North Africa and southern Europe and Asia. In 732 Islam dominated Spain and part of France. Since the defeat in France did not continue to fight but they have been consolidating their power in many countries especially in Africa and Asia.

Sunnis, Shiites and Sufis

From the beginning Islam has been a political and religious movement their division in sects and sub sects is due to political conflicts and differences in doctrines. In the twentieth century there was more than 72 Islamic groups. The four main branches of Islam are the Sunnis, Sufis, Shiites and Baha'is who can be classified as a religion, the world's newest and greatest penetration in the West.

The Sunni are considered Orthodox Muslims, who adhere to the original teachings of Islam.

Sufis (between Sunni and Shea) to give more emphasis to the spiritual aspect of political Islam. Looking for the individual relationship with Allah, they have their monasteries and strive to observe the requirements of Islam. They are known for their literature.

Shiites also are known for their mysticism. In factional war, they established their capital in Baghdad, Iraq, and had outstanding performance in the expansion of the empire. They do not recognize the legitimacy of some caliphates and they say that the twelfth Imam or Caliph (spiritual leader) disappeared and will return to reign over the world.

Islamic law (Sharia) Sharia is Islamic law, as developed by Muslim scholars. The Koran is the main source of Islamic jurisprudence. The second source is the Sunnah, or tradition. The Sunnah is not itself a text like the Qur'an, but the sum of hadices, originally oral traditions relate the words and deeds of Mohammad.

Sharia covers all aspects of Muslim life. The Koran prescribes one of these laws and precepts, such as the prohibition of murder, of extramarital sex, alcohol consumption and gambling. Furthermore, the above requirements is prohibited certain things, including the use of snuff and alcohol and eat pork.

The Koran also details laws relating to inheritance, marriage, compensation in cases of murder or bodily harm, as well as rules for fasting, the azaque (tribute that Muslims are obliged to pay for their goods and devote to God) and prayer. The precepts and prohibitions are interpreted in practice by the Ulema, the doctors of Mohammedan law.

Other legal issues are settled by judges or Takže. They are given the power of sentencing in accordance with the principles of the Koran and the Sunnah. Islamic law is directly applicable when the constitution of the country involved so dictates, such as Saudi Arabia or Iran. Otherwise, the law enacted by the state, which, as the case may coincide to a greater or lesser extent with the Shariah.

1 comment:

Rudy Spillman said...

Amazing the history cover made in this article. The eternal question is: On behalf of what Koran principles, arabs take part in violent acts?
A question that will continue to stay without answer.
Congratulations and regards.
Rudy