THE MEASUREMENT AND DIVISION OF TIME
Victor Manuel Guzmán Villena
The calendar is a system for calculating and recording the time: days, months and seasons. The rotation of the earth on its axis with reference to the sun, stands for one day. The revolution of the moon around the earth, one month, and the earth's revolution around the sun in one year. Different cultures have developed their own calendar through history.
The Moslem calendar is one of the most primitive. Strictly is a lunar calendar. The year consists of twelve lunar months, which retrograde through the seasons in about 32.5 years.
The Egyptian calendar divided the year into 12 months of 30 days each, with 5 additional days that followed every 12 months. As you know the annual loss of a quarter day, go backwards through the seasons in 1460 years, 1461 years hence Egyptians 1360 years are equal to Julian. Egyptian year was called lazy because they started at different times in different seasons.
The Hindu calendar is a lunisolar calendars early in the year is divided into 12 months, with an intercalary month of the same name, inserted after every month in which there are two moons, which occurs approximately every three years . The year begins around April 11.
In the Chinese calendar the year begins with the first new moon after the sun enters Aquarius. It consists of 1 month, a month is intercalated every 30 months. Each month is divided into thirds. Dating from the year 2697 a.de C. So the Chinese equivalent Gregorian year 4702 is 2005 AD.
The Jewish calendar is also lunisolar calendar governing since 3761 BC, the traditional year of creation. The church year begins with the first new moon after the spring equinox, but the civil year begins with the new moon following the autumnal equinox. The years are flawed, every 353 days, 354 days regular, or perfect for 355 days, with an intercalary month in years 3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17 and 19 Metonic cycle of 19 years. Each month begins with the new moon, allowing some flexibility to make certain festivities on appropriate days of the year.
The Roman calendar was originally assumed that consisted of 10 months, with a total of 304 days, beginning in March and ending in December. Numa added January and February, bringing to 355 days, and ordered an intercalary month every second year. The Romans counted backwards from three fixed points of the month: the Kalends, the 1st, the Ides, March 15, May, July and October, and 13 other months, and the nights were the Nones of March while March 30 was the third day before the Kalends of April.
The abuse of power by the pontiffs and the many wars of conquest before the Christian era so broke the Roman calendar after the conquest of Egypt, Julius Caesar led Rome to a Greek named Sosigines astrologer, who with the Marcus Fabius help conducted the first major reform of the calendar: The Julian calendar, which gave its name and entered into force in the Western world in the year 45 BC and continued in use until 1582.
These reforms consisted of: The equinox was returned to March, by inserting two months between November and December of the year 46 BC Christ, creating what later became known as the last year of confusion. It abolished the lunar year and the intercalary month. The duration of the solar year was fixed at 365.25 days. As compensation for the accumulation of these fractions in one day every four years, the extra day was inserted at the end of February, then the last month of the year, making the "leap year" of 366 days.
The fifth month, Quintilis, was named in his honor July. Evenly distributed on the months, 30 days to even months and 31 days for odd, except February which had 30 days in leap year. He ordered it to enter into force on 1 January of the year 45 BC of Christ. However, despite the fact that the Julian calendar came into effect on 1 January, followed the calendar year starting March 25. Augusto slightly disarranged the system and changed the name of Sextilis by Augustus, but refusing to be honored with a month shorter, as July, ordered that he raise it to 31 days, reducing to February to 28 days, except leap years. Hence, to him we should irregular arrangement of the months of 30 and 31 days. However, provided an important service to discontinue leap years about 11 years to correct an error of 3 days that had accumulated gradually because the popes had been inserting a day every 3 years instead of every 4 for 36 years without the error from 1 to 3 days in the chronology of the period never been corrected.
Later Roger Bacon wrote a thesis on calendar reform and referred to the Pope, and in 1474 Pope Sixtus IV summoned Regiomontanus to Rome to lead a reconstruction of the calendar, but died before completing his task. Pope Gregory XII convened a group of learned to discuss and build an accurate calendar. That was how after five years of study went into effect the Gregorian calendar, which instituted the following reforms: 10 days were excluded, provided, that on October 5 will be counted as 15 October; Fixed the duration of the solar year, setting it to 365, 5 hours, 49 minutes, 12 seconds, was made to start the year on January 1, years became the leap secular, only if it is divisible by 400, thus earned a fraction of one day every 100 years than 15 centuries had risen to 10 days. The new calendar was adopted immediately in all Roman Catholic countries, but the rest of the world delayed its acceptance.
History of the months The names of the months are of great antiquity, although in many respects lost its original significance, continue to survive as part of our common language. Originally tended to represent the twelve arches of the annual revolution of the earth in its orbit around the sun, and thus were comparable to those arches are now known as astrological or astronomical signs of the zodiac.
The original meaning of the months is as follows:
January: Month of 31 days, the first in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. It is named for Janus, who ruled ancient Roman deity doors and gates, and therefore all beginnings. He is depicted with two faces, turning in opposite directions, to indicate that every end is also a beginning. Janus is identified as Jupiter, and indicate that they look both ways to better protect the house that is kept.
February: Month of 28 days, except when added to another inserted in leap years, the second month of the Julian and Gregorian calendars. Not included in the calendar Romuliana, and it is said that Numa him into the Roman calendar in 713 BC C.. The name derives from februaro, purify, what Febra born, the festival of atonement, celebrating the end of the month during which the women were "purified" by priests.
March: Month of 31 days, the third of the Julian and Gregorian calendars first Roman. It is called the honor of Mars, God of War, the famous father of Romulus, who traditionally attributed the compilation of the first calendar. But the month Ovid says that existed before the time of Romulus.
April: 30 days, the fourth month of the Julian and Gregorian calendar, second Roman. Usually relates etymologically with aperire (Latin open), as the season when the flowers open their petals. However, the months were named according to the Roman gods and as April was sacred to Venus and Festum Veneris et Fortunae Virilis was concluded on day 1, it is possible that the month was originally Aphrilis, by Aphrodite, the Greek name of Venus.
May: Month 31 days, the fifth of the Julian and Gregorian third of the Roman. It is said that it is called in honor of the goddess Maya, daughter of Atlas and mother of Mercury and Jupiter. Nevertheless, for other historians presumably named it in honor of the senators. The month was considered unlucky for marriage due to the celebration of the Lemurs, the feast of the dead unhappy, which took place on 9, 11 and 13. This is reflected in the draft unidentified origin "Marry in May and you'll regret it."
June: Month 30 days, the sixth of the Julian and Gregorian calendars, the fourth in the Roman calendar. Oviedo makes the month was named after Juno, but elsewhere the author contradicts this source. June should probably named after the junior assembly (MPs) from the government, the assembly and May senior (senators). Before the reform of the Julian calendar was 29 days.
July: Month of 31 days, the seventh of the Julian calendar and Gregorian and fifth Roman. Originally called Quintillius. Marco Antonio was renamed in honor of Julius Caesar, who was born in that month.
August: Month of 31 days, the eighth in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, the sixth of the Roman calendar. Originally known as Sextilis, by order of Augustus Caesar changed the name, who in rejecting that he was honored with a month smaller than that devoted to Julius Caesar, called July, ordered him to be increased to 31 days, taking the extra day of February . In Gaul and remote part of the empire was known as Aust, which means harvest.
September: Month of 30 days, the ninth in the Julian and Gregorian calendars and seventh Roman. The Ludi Magni, in honor of Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, the Romans celebrated September the 4th. In the calendar of Charlemagne was called "month of the harvest", corresponding in part to Fructidor Vendemiaire and partly to the First French Republic.
October: Month of 31 days, the tenth in Julian and the Gregorian and eighth in the Roman calendar. The Equirria when Equuus October was sacrificed to Mars in the Campus Martius, was celebrated on Oct. 15. Successive attempts were made to be called Germanium, Antoninus, Tacitus, Hercules, but all failed, as did the Roman Senate was proposed Faustinus name it in honor of Faustina, wife of Antoninus.
November: Month 30 days, the eleventh in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, the ninth of the Roman calendar. The Roman winter started on November 11 and was celebrated on 13 with a sacred banquet in honor of Jupiter, Jovis Epulum. The purpose of the Senate was called Tiberius was vetoed by the Emperor, asking that they would propose to the arrival of Caesar thirteenth. The All Saints Day is 1, the All Souls 2.
December: (Latin: Decem, ten). 31-day month, twelfth in the Julian and Gregorian calendars, the tenth of the Roman calendar. The Saturn Saturnalia or holidays celebrated this month. During the reign of Commodus Amazonius was temporarily named in honor of his lover whose portrait was painted as Amazons. Holy month, by the fact that Christmas is celebrated in this month.